Parking charges and fines have made councils in Scotland a record profit of £33.6 million.
Data analysed by the RAC Foundation shows that almost half that sum was made by Edinburgh City Council, which raised £15.3 million. Glasgow City Council made £10.3 million, while Aberdeen had a surplus of £5 million.
During the last financial year 2013/14 a total of £73.3 million was raised across Scotland through parking. The combined cost to local authorities of running parking activities was £39.8 million, leaving a profit of £33.6 million.
This was a £200,000 increase on the previous year when the surplus was £33.4 million.
The RAC urges councils to clearly set out where their profits are going.
Professor Stephen Glaister, director of the RAC Foundation, says: "These numbers tell the definitive story of who is making what from public parking in Scotland.
"Not all authorities are generating a surplus but overall we are talking about big money.
"Nobody wants a parking free-for-all but when we are talking about such large sums, local authorities should be transparent with residents and drivers about what their parking policy is, why charges are set at the level they are and where the profits are going."
The RAC analysed data that is returned annually to the Scottish Government by local authorities.
The figures show that 16 councils made a profit and 13 made a loss, while parking operations in the Shetland Islands broke even.
East Lothian and North Lanarkshire councils did not provide any accounts.
Also, not every council provided information on how many penalty charge notices were issued over the year, but in Edinburgh there were 230,000. It is estimated there are around 700,000 issued each year across the country as a whole.
Copyright Press Association 2015