Moscow is the most congested city in the world, according to the 2012 Congestion Index by TomTom.
The index, which is world's most accurate barometer of congestion in urban areas, compared congestion levels in 2012 versus 2011 in 161 cities and across five continents.
Journey times in the Russian capital are 66% longer during non-congested periods when traffic is flowing freely, and a massive 106% longer during morning rush hour.
Istanbul in Turkey is the second most congested city, with journey times 55% longer during non-congested periods when traffic is flowing freely.
Warsaw in Poland finished third (42%), followed by Marseille in France (40%) and Palermo in Italy (39%).
Los Angeles in the United States, Sydney in Australia, Stuttgart in Germany, Paris in France and Italy in Rome completed the top ten most congested cities, all recording journey times 33% longer.
Congestion is a driver's worst nightmare, especially when they are in a hurry. Heavy traffic on the roads can also increase the risk of bumps and scrapes, pushing upinsurance premiums for motorists.
"This detailed knowledge of the entire road network helps businesses and governments to make more informed decisions about how best to tackle, and avoid congestion," said Ralf-Peter Schafer, head of traffic at TomTom.
Copyright Press Association 2013