Hammond is expected to announce billions of pounds worth of projects all over Britain.
Infrastructure investment will be "at the heart" of Wednesday’s mini-Budget the Government has said.
The funds will include £1.1bn for reducing congestion and upgrading local roads while £220m will tackle tackling "pinch points" on England's motorways and major A roads.
A new £27m expressway will also be built between Oxford, Milton Keynes and Cambridge.
Writing for The Sunday Telegraph, Mr Hammond explained that “for too long” spending has been focussed on projects that do not provide a long-term benefit to the economy.
According to the Treasury, road congestion costs the UK £13bn every year.
It claims that the equivalent of more than 100 million working days could be lost by 2040 unless action is taken.
It was also recently revealed that it will take 14 years to clear the backlog potholes in England.
The amount of time it would take to do the repairs has soared by almost a third in the past decade, according to figures published by the Local Government Association.
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Politicians have called on the Chancellor to prioritise investment in transport in the north of England.
The politicians, including Greater Manchester mayoral candidate Andy Burnham, representing Leeds, Manchester, Newcastle, Sheffield and Liverpool, said northern motorways are reaching "saturation point" and that train capacity is "at the limit".
They warned that investors could lose confidence in the North, and the so-called "northern powerhouse" initiative without improvements to the transport network.
Mr Burnham joined Labour's Liverpool mayoral candidate Steve Rotheram, interim Greater Manchester mayor Tony Lloyd, Leeds City Council leader Judith Blake, Manchester City Council leader Richard Leese, Newcastle City Council leader Nick Forbes and Sheffield City Council leader Julie Dore to make the call in a letter to Mr Hammond.
He said: "If people in London and the south east had to put up with the north's transport system, there would be protests in the streets. It is our turn to come to the front of the queue for transport investment and that must start this week."