A motoring campaigner has lost his test case legal fight against 'large' controlled parking zones (CPZs).
Neil Herron, a former market trader, claimed that the parking zone in Sunderland city centre is very huge and baffling to motorists.
The 47-year-old said drivers find it difficult to follow the signs at the zone, making it "unlawful".
He wanted the court to nullify the 39 penalty charge notices issued against him for parking on single yellow lines in the zone.
The Sunderland resident challenged the rejection of his claim by the National Parking Appeals Service at the High Court in London, but Mr Justice Bean ruled against his case on Tuesday.
The judge said Mr Herron's case was "entirely based on technicality and utterly devoid of merit".
One of the strongly disputed points presented by Mr Herron's lawyers at a recent hearing was that local authorities were taking monetary advantage of the confusion created by the zones and issuing more parking tickets.
The case, if won by Mr Herron, could have been a major setback for the "over-sized" CPZs across the country. It could have led to thousands of drivers applying to have their parking fines cancelled.
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